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Philosophy student. I primarily write about philosophical topics concerning life, science, history, society, politics, and critical thinking. Come along!
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Knowledge has always been a frequent topic to discuss in philosophy. Or isn’t it like the foundation of philosophy? Asking questions and getting to know the answers? Or even of all sciences?

At least, I wanted to write an impressive introduction — so that you keep reading this article so that you end up knowing a little more.

What is knowledge?

So, the definition of knowledge goes like this:

A person P knows the proposition q if and if only (IFF):

i) the proposition q is true, and
ii) the person P believes q, and
iii) the person P is justified to believe q…


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When I first read Nagel’s work, I got a bit frustrated with how the philosopher expounds on the problem. Or rather, how he doesn’t (at first).

Thomas Nagel (born 1937) discusses in his work “Subjective and Objective”, how one common problem goes through various fields of philosophy. The reason for this problem is the difference between subjective and objective points of view.

After a short introduction he clearly states that he won’t discuss the problem already in the beginning, and neither explain what the terms subjective and objective mean exactly.

Instead, he presents five examples from the metaphysics and ethics…


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It all started when I heard the word “narcissist”. I’m not exaggerating when I say that it felt as if the world, as I have always known it, crumbled down. I was scared. What exactly does this mean? So my father’s narcissistic? Some childhood memories and some recent events flashed across my mind.

The way my siblings and I were always afraid of my father, especially when he got angry. For example, when you did something wrong (in his specific sense of wrongness), he would just stare at you with this frozen, intimidating look, and you felt so uncomfortable and…


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“Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when we are, death is not come, and, when death is come, we are not.” (Epicurus)

I feel like there are two common viewpoints regarding death: either being afraid of it and avoiding thinking about it or (what’s often suggested as a way out) embracing your mortality to value your life more.

But there is a third point of view, proposed by an ancient Greek philosopher, Epicurus: Just don’t mind it.

Epicurus (341–271 BC)

To understand his concept better, you need to know that Epicurus was a proponent of hedonism…


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I recently read the book 48 Laws of Power by Robert Greene and I’m not sure what to think of the book overall though. According to common sense, these laws just seem morally reprehensible. And from a philosophical perspective, it seems unethical to adopt these laws and act according to them, as they lead you to act selfishly, exploitatively. It seems to me that it would just be very disrespectful and unfriendly to the people around you.

If you don’t know that book, don’t worry, here are a few examples of these laws:

Law 7: Get Others to Do the…


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We all have desires. And goals, urges, cravings, wishes, self-imposed guidelines.

It might be as subtle as mindlessly making a sip of a glass of water, or as strong as eating when your hungry or making out with your partner when you’re horny. Sometimes, desires interfere with each other, and it can be confusing and frustrating to decide what to do.

There’s one philosopher who wanted to put this dilemma in order. Harry G. …


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I’ll always remember the moment when I first realized I’m meditating — without actually sitting on my cushion and practicing meditation (actually, I was washing the dishes).

I seemed to stand beside myself, observing my mind from the outside. It was truly amazing. So, that’s what mindfulness really is, I thought.

It was at a time when I made it a habit to meditate every day, which I had started approximately six months ago. …


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Humans are rational beings and operate according to reason and logic.

Or so we like to think of ourselves. Of course, our emotions, instincts, and past experiences also play a role.

But if one has slept sufficiently, the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex are well balanced out, i.e. we are not completely devoted to our random emotions, but our reason helps us to calm these and to look at things more rationally.

The amygdala is the part of the brain that is the center of emotions, while the prefrontal cortex is where we reason and rationally comprehend stuff.

Argumentation and…


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Throughout antiquity, philosophers referred to earth with the word cosmos.

The earth was not only the surrounding, the place where people lived, but cosmos simultaneously meant order, decoration, and a good composition: it was considered as organized, beautiful, and precious.

The verb “cosmein” described various actions: Building a house, writing a speech, organizing the army. All these things meant also “to organize”, and were strongly associated with human reason.

Cosmos isn’t just beautiful, it is also reasonable.

A special example of organizing is the following:

An illness was understood as the disruption of the harmony of a living body.

According to ancient physicians, every disease was triggered by…


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Ever heard of Timaeus and his probable ideas about the formation of the universe? He appears in a dialogue written by Plato.

Plato is a Greek philosopher (428/7–348/7 BC) who lived during the time of the Peloponnesian War. He wrote many dialogues, while early dialogues reflect his opinion about, for example, the historical Socrates(469–399 BC), while later works tend to contain Plato’s opinions personified by Socrates. For example, his work “Phaedo” is one of the later dialogues he wrote, where Plato is speaking — through the person of Socrates.

Early dialogues usually have an aporetic ending, that means, they end…

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