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Philosophy student. I primarily write about philosophical topics concerning life, science, history, society, politics, and critical thinking. Come along!
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How do you know you’re not living in a simulation? This question is just an updated version of Descartes’ evil demon thought experiment.

The French philosopher and scientist René Descartes(1596–1650) has doubts in his work “Meditations” about everything because he wants to know the underlying truth.

Meditation as a literary…


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Do you think:

“Action theory” sounds boring, not relatable, theoretical, and after all, I know what acting and actions are!

That’s what a lot of students (me included) thought at the beginning. Or even still think. But if you’re interested in, for example, traditional ethics, where the key questions are…


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Knowledge has always been a frequent topic to discuss in philosophy. Or isn’t it like the foundation of philosophy? Asking questions and getting to know the answers? Or even of all sciences?

At least, I wanted to write an impressive introduction — so that you keep reading this article so…


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When I first read Nagel’s work, I got a bit frustrated with how the philosopher expounds on the problem. Or rather, how he doesn’t (at first).

Thomas Nagel (born 1937) discusses in his work “Subjective and Objective”, how one common problem goes through various fields of philosophy. …


two people facing each other and yelling
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It all started when I heard the word “narcissist”. I’m not exaggerating when I say that it felt as if the world, as I have always known it, crumbled down. I was scared. What exactly does this mean? So my father’s narcissistic? …


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“Death, therefore, the most awful of evils, is nothing to us, seeing that, when we are, death is not come, and, when death is come, we are not.” (Epicurus)

I feel like there are two common viewpoints regarding death: either being afraid of it and avoiding thinking about it or…


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I recently read the book 48 Laws of Power by Robert Greene and I’m not sure what to think of the book overall though. According to common sense, these laws just seem morally reprehensible. And from a philosophical perspective, it seems unethical to adopt these laws and act according to…


Illustration by Antonella Macchiavello

We all have desires. And goals, urges, cravings, wishes, self-imposed guidelines.

It might be as subtle as mindlessly making a sip of a glass of water, or as strong as eating when your hungry or making out with your partner when you’re horny. …


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I’ll always remember the moment when I first realized I’m meditating — without actually sitting on my cushion and practicing meditation (actually, I was washing the dishes).

I seemed to stand beside myself, observing my mind from the outside. It was truly amazing. …


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Humans are rational beings and operate according to reason and logic.

Or so we like to think of ourselves. Of course, our emotions, instincts, and past experiences also play a role.

But if one has slept sufficiently, the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex are well balanced out, i.e. we are…

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